The 2016 ecbi Seminar took place in the Oxford Union on 1-2 September 2016, following the Fellows Colloquium from 29-31 August 2016. It was attended by 19 participants from developing countries, and 16 participants from Europe. Representatives of the current and future presidency of the Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, including H.E. Amb. Aziz Mekouar, Ambassador for the Multilateral Negotiations for COP 22 in Marrakech in November 2016, participated in the Seminar. Amb. Mekouar noted in his address that the meeting was an opportunity to “have frank and honest conversations on the optimal, most ambitious way to operationalise the Paris Agreement”. "When it comes to the mechanics of the operationalization of the Paris Agreement, the design of the rule book, the steel that will strengthen the structure of the Paris Agreement, it is very important that we get off to a good start in Marrakech,” Amb. Mekouar said. The seminar included sessions on six elements of the 2015 Paris Agreement, including: the sequencing of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs); the global stocktake: transparency of action and support: finance; market-based approaches; and entry into force. Participants included chief negotiators from several developing and European countries; the Chairs of the LDC Group, African Group of Negotiators and of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA); members of the Green Climate Fund Board; and representatives from the European Commission.