Publications & Policy Analysis

Publications Catalogue

Publications Catalogue

This policy brief gives an account of how Article 6 of the Paris Agreement came into being, focussing in particular on the role of Brazil and the EU in the run up to Paris. It then seeks to clarify the basic concepts involved in the Article 6 debate, and proposes ways in which opposing positions on the opertionalisation of the market mechanisms can be reconciled.

Author:
Benito Müller with contributions by Túlio Andrade, Martin Hession, Kelley Kizzier and Jose Miguez
Publication Date:
April 2018

To meaningfully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of ‘common time frames’, clarity is necessary on which common time frames one is referring to. In the context of nationally determined contributions (NDCs), there are essentially two possible interpretations of that phrase: a material one, and a procedural one. The material interpretation is about time intervals associated with the NDCs – to be precise, about target periods and implementation periods. The procedural interpretation is about timetables for communicating and updating NDCs. Both types of time frames might benefit ambition through a harmonisation. Since the debate on target and implementation periods is chiefly centred around the market-based collaborative approaches of Article 6, it is probably best not to bring it into the Article 4.10 debate. That debate, particularly in the context of how common time frames could help enhance NDC ambition, is therefore best focused on the procedural side of things. This Note highlights some of the problems with the NDC communication and updating process, as currently defined in paragraphs 23 and 24 of Decision 1/CP.21. It also summarises the advantages, for enhancing NDC ambition, of combining the two paragraphs into a common procedural time frame that has become known as the Dynamic Contribution Cycle. In practical terms, such a combination could be achieved in very simple terms, by: Requesting all Parties in 2025 to update their 2030 NDC and communicate an indicative 2035 NDC, and to do so every five years thereafter.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
February 2018

This Discussion Note considers how the idea of climate finance contributions from sub-nationals has evolved since the Paris Conference in 2015, and how it can be taken to the next level at the Global Climate Action Summit in September 2018.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
January 2018

The Adaptation Communications can play a central role in identifying national needs and enabling international follow-up, while informing future action, driving ambition, and contributing information for the global stocktake. However, Parties to the Paris Agreement face a difficult balancing act while developing further guidance for the Communications, as they strive to make them useful and effective on one hand, and avoid placing an additional burden on countries (particularly those with limited capacity) on the other. This policy brief considers the challenges in light of the discussions that have taken place so far, most recently in Bonn in November 2017.  

Author:
Sven Harmeling, Alejandra López Carabajal & Irene Suárez Pérez
Publication Date:
January 2018

A brief on the need to balance flexibility and utility while develolping the guidance for Adaptation Communications at COP23 and beyond.

Author:
Sven Harmeling
Publication Date:
November 2017

The 2018 Facilitative Dialogue, now called the Talanoa Dialogue, will address three questions: where are we now; where do we need to be; and how do we get there. It will include a preparatory phase and a political element. That much is clear, but key issues remain to be resolved. How will preparatory phase will feed into the political element? How can non-Party stakeholders engage effectively? What should the inputs and outputs of the Dialogue be? How can the Dialogue – which is a collective process – contribute to enhancing the climate ambition of individual Parties? This policy brief considers these issues, and offers suggestions for the way ahead.

Author:
Kaveh Guilanpour, Orlando Rey, Achala Abeysinghe & Mbaye Diagne
Publication Date:
November 2017

Not satisfied with only a “National” Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Nepal pioneered a framework for Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPAs) in 2011, and committed to ensuring that at least 80% of the financial resources available for climate change will be channelled to the local level.What lessons can Nepal’s experience in devolving climate finance and action offer to the international community, and in particular to the Green Climate Fund’s Enhanced Direct Access modality, which aims to promote sub-national, devolved access? This paper examines the National Climate Change Support Programme, a bilaterally-funded programme to develop and implement LAPAs in Nepal, to draw lessons for the GCF and for other developing countries.

Author:
Anju Sharma, Raju Pandit Chhetri & Dharam Uprety
Publication Date:
October 2017

Generating new (innovative) sources of funding from US states, regions, and cities, for the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) of the Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC/Paris Agreement.

Author:
Publication Date:
June 2017

A call for Europe to demonstrate renewed leadership in the international climate change regime

Author:
Bo Kjellen and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
March 2017

The Adaptation Fund After Marrakech. OCP/ecbi Discussion Note

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
January 2017

Q&A, OCP/ecbi Discussion Note

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
October 2016

Opportunities and Challenges

Author:
Christian Holz and Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
October 2016
Author:
Harro van Asselt, Romain Weikmans and Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
October 2016

Review and Communication Cycles - Options Note

Author:
Benito Müller and Xolisa Ngwadla, with Cristina Carreiras, Geert Fremout, Carlos Fuller, Kishan Kumarsingh, Jose Miguez
Publication Date:
October 2016

Shares of Proceeds and Crowdfunding

Author:
Benito Müller with Alexandra Kornilova, and Carsten Warnecke
Publication Date:
October 2016

The Need for Strategic Caps and Balances

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2016

Joint Submission to the Green Climate Fund Board

Author:
Benito Müller, with Diann Black-Lane, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu, Cheikh Sylla, and Anders Wallberg
Publication Date:
April 2016

How to enhance mitigation ambition under the Paris Agreement

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2016

The long-term view: OCP/ecbi/OIES Discussion Note

Author:
Bo Kjellen
Publication Date:
April 2016
Author:
Benito Müller Harro van Asselt, Cristina Carreiras, and Kaveh Guilanpour
Publication Date:
March 2016
Author:
Laurel Murray, with Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
December 2015

Summary Brief

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November 2015
Author:
Benito Müller and Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
November 2015

Submission to the Green Climate Fund Board

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November 2015
Author:
Benito Müller & Xolisa Ngwadla
Publication Date:
October 2015

Having been established more than a decade ago to address the urgent and immediate needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) especially vulnerable to the impact of climate change, the Least Developed Countries Fund for Climate Change (LDCF) still struggles to obtain adequate and predictable funding. The Global Environment Facility, the operating entity of the LDCF, has been unable to program LDCF resources at the level of around US$200 million per year, as proposed in the Programming Strategy for the LDCF.

More generally, this Think Piece by Benito Müller argues, a success at the UN Climate change summit Paris in December will require a significant finance package which is not ad hoc, but rather provides genuine longer-term predictability. In addition to using the proceeds of new international market mechanisms, we think there is also a need to look at innovative sources at the national and sub-national level.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
May 2015

This OCP/ecbi submission to the Standing Committee on Finance summarizes the most recent developments regarding the relations between the Adaptation Fund and the Green Climate Fund and proposes that with regard to this particular relationship, the SCF should focus on how to make best use of existing complementarities between the two funds.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2015

A great deal of confusion has resulted from the fact that it has hitherto not been possible for the GCF Board to agree on definitions for some of the key nouns referred to in the GCF Governing Instrument in the context of who can access GCF funding. This Concept Note by Benito Müller proposes the following definitions in terms of the GCF accreditation categories:
• Implementing Entity (IE): an entity accredited by the GCF to access GCF funding.
• Project Implementing Entity: an IE accredited for project management.
• Funding Entity: an IE accredited to award grants and/or allocate funding.
• Intermediary: an IE accredited for on-lending and/or blending.

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2015

National and international finance is increasingly becoming available in developing countries to address climate change for both mitigation and adaptation. However, existing (domestic) arrangements for climate finance are often dispersed and fragmentary, and lack clear goals and strategies, therefore allowing for neither efficiency nor accountability. This ecbi Policy Brief by Anju Sharma, Benito Müller, and Pratim Roy examines the governance arrangements for climate finance in India, and proposes the creation of an Indian National Climate Fund to pool climate finance from different national and international sources, to channel it to the State and local levels. The Fund should seek to 'consolidate without centralisation', and to devolve decision-making on the use of climate finance to local governments. In addition to defining a common vision and principles for climate finance, such a National Funding Entity should aim for coherence with national development goals strategies, and integration across sectors; distributive justice, to ensure that climate finance reaches those who need it most, and that their needs are prioritised; and a balance between different thematic areas (such as mitigation, adaptation, capacity building etc.). It should also review progress continuously, and make mid-course corrections where necessary.

Author:
Anju Sharma, Benito Müller and Pratim Roy
Publication Date:
March 2015

On 5 March, the Green Climate Fund (GCF) Secretariat published a Board Paper and Draft Decision on ‘Additional Modalities that Further Enhance Direct Access: Terms of Reference for a Pilot Phase,’ putting forward recommendations to the GCF Board on how to operationalise the ‘Enhanced Direct Access Pilot Phase’, which was agreed during the last Board meeting that took place in Barbados in October 2014. The Draft Decision is ‘to launch a Request for Proposal to countries through their national designated authority or focal point and public media to competitively select subnational, national, public and private entities for the implementation of 5 pilots with a total of US$ 100 million, including at least 2 pilots to be implemented in small island developing States, the least developed countries and African States’.

Enhanced Direct Access and the GCF Private Sector Facility

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
February 2015

In their Scenario Note on the sixth part of the second session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), the ADP Co-chairs emphasized that “it is essential to use the October session to make significant progress in clarifying and advancing the content of the 2015 agreement, to build bridges and to work together on outstanding issues. In particular, it will be important in the October session, to further clarify and flesh out the operational aspects of the agreement. Key challenges that will need focussed attention in our work include: deepening the understanding on the longer-term cycle of contributions/commitments, including its periodicity (length) and the functions of the steps proposed, such as any periodical consideration or assessment and review”.

This ecbi/OCP Concept Note by Benito Müller, Xolisa J. Ngwadla (South Africa), Jose D. G. Miguez (Brazil) with Isabel Cavelier Adarve (Colombia), Carlos Fuller (Belize), Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu (DRC), and Nagmeldin G. Elhassan (Sudan) introduces the idea of a Dynamic Contribution Cycle as a contribution to the debate on these issues.

Sequencing Contributions in the 2015 Paris Agreement

Author:
Benito Müller, Xolisa J. Ngwadla, Jose D. G. Miguez with Isabel Cavelier Adarve, Carlos Fuller, Tosi Mpanu-Mpanu & Nagmeldin G. Elhassan
Publication Date:
October 2014

The Berlin Mandate, adopted during the early hours of 7 April 1995, marked the end of the first Conference of Parties (COP 1) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Berlin, Germany.1 The Mandate was one of the most important decisions of the COP, paving the way for the negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol.2

As Chief Negotiator for Sweden, I participated actively in high-level informal consultations before the Berlin COP. During the COP, I chaired a high-level working group on the Berlin Mandate, which was established at the very beginning of the conference and worked all through, with meetings practically every day. My reflections in this paper seek to provide an insider’s view of the Berlin Mandate process, and draw lessons for the ongoing negotiations for a post-2020 climate regime.

Process and Substance

Author:
Bo Kjellen
Publication Date:
May 2014

In a recent Concept Note,1 Benito Müller put forward the idea of a Southern Solidarity Fund (SSF) to receive voluntary contributions from developing countries for South-South climate change cooperation. It is meant to be established by the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC or Convention) with a developing country Board, and to be operated by the Green Climate Fund (GCF), as an operating entity of the FCCC financial mechanism. As such, it is meant to give developing countries ‘the opportunity to provide support to their peers for climate change activities’2 which ‘should be able to avail itself of the best available delivery systems, such as is hoped will be established under the Green Climate Fund, in particular through Enhanced Direct Access, where operational decision-making is devolved to recipient countries.’

Legal Options and Challenges

Author:
Charlotte Streck and David Rossati
Publication Date:
May 2014

An OCP/ecbi Legal Note

Author:
Wouter Geldhof, Tom Ruys, and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
May 2014

BACKGROUND PAPER GCF/B.06/05

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2014

OCP/ecbi/OIES Discussion Note

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2014

Afterthoughts

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2014

Preliminary Thoughts

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2014

Speaking at a dinner hosted by the Indonesian government during the recent Green Climate Fund Board meeting in Bali, Mr. Bambang Brodjonegoro, the Vice Minister of Finance, stated:
‘During this Board Meeting in Bali, Indonesia announces its pledge to contribute to the Fund. Indonesia also stands ready if all countries are required to contribute for the capital base of the Fund. I am hoping this contribution can support the Fund’s activities in helping developing countries to prepare and finance emissions reduction and adaptation programs, including capacity building programs under the South-South Cooperation that replicate the success stories of climate change programmes in other countries. I do hope other more capable countries can consider making pledges, or adding to their pledges, or making an indication of their pledges during this Bali meeting.’
The significance of this announcement should not be underestimated. It signals the readiness of a major developing country to provide voluntary support for South-South Cooperation on climate change through the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

Speaking at a dinner hosted by the Indonesian government during the recent Green Climate Fund Board meeting in Bali, Mr. Bambang Brodjonegoro, the Vice Minister of Finance, stated:
‘During this Board Meeting in Bali, Indonesia announces its pledge to contribute to the Fund. Indonesia also stands ready if all countries are required to contribute for the capital base of the Fund. I am hoping this contribution can support the Fund’s activities in helping developing countries to prepare and finance emissions reduction and adaptation programs, including capacity building programs under the South-South Cooperation that replicate the success stories of climate change programmes in other countries. I do hope other more capable countries can consider making pledges, or adding to their pledges, or making an indication of their pledges during this Bali meeting.’

The significance of this announcement should not be underestimated. It signals the readiness of a major developing country to provide voluntary support for South-South Cooperation on climate change through the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

A GCF Operated Southern Solidarity Fund

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2014

Discussion Note for the Sixth Meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board

A Discussion Note for the Sixth Meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board

Status quo and the way forward

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2014

This Rough Guide to Enhanced Direct Access (EDA) by Benito Müller provides the key conceptual tools needed to understand EDA and exemplifies the main access models graphically with a number of figures, meant to illustrate the key differences between these models.

This Rough Guide to Enhanced Direct Access (EDA) by Benito Müller provides the key conceptual tools needed to understand EDA and exemplifies the main access models graphically with a number of figures, meant to illustrate the key differences between these models.

Author:
OCP/ ecbi/ OIES
Publication Date:
March 2014

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) Board is in the process of considering "additional modalities that further enhance direct access". A devolved and decentralized access modality has been proposed as an alternative to the more traditional model, where detailed project approval is carried out at the multilateral level. This ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller and William Pizer explains the relation between "enhanced direct access" and "programmatic approaches," and addresses certain concerns raised about this decentralized/devolved access model, using seven case studies to illustrate current practices that could provide ideas and insights about how the GCF might design its own approach. The case studies are focused around four questions:
a. How does the funding model generally work, in terms of disbursing funds?
b. Who decides what? What decisions are taken by the governing funding body and what decisions are devolved and to whom?
c. How does this funding model ensure the governing body’s objectives are met, and how does it ensure that the various fiduciary standards and safeguards are satisfied?
d. How is the funding level for a particular programme determined?

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) Board is in the process of considering "additional modalities that further enhance direct access". A devolved and decentralized access modality has been proposed as an alternative to the more traditional model, where detailed project approval is carried out at the multilateral level. This ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller and William Pizer explains the relation between "enhanced direct access" and "programmatic approaches," and addresses certain concerns raised about this decentralized/devolved access model, using seven case studies to illustrate current practices that could provide ideas and insights about how the GCF might design its own approach. The case studies are focused around four questions:
a. How does the funding model generally work, in terms of disbursing funds?
b. Who decides what? What decisions are taken by the governing funding body and what decisions are devolved and to whom?
c. How does this funding model ensure the governing body’s objectives are met, and how does it ensure that the various fiduciary standards and safeguards are satisfied?
d. How is the funding level for a particular programme determined?

Author:
Benito Müller & William Pizer, with contributions by Sophie de Coninck, Dan Morrow, Gonzalo Serrano de la Rosa, Anju Sharma & Ced Hesse
Publication Date:
March 2014

Whether or not the regime emerging from the current negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be based on an explicit cost/burden sharing formula, the debate about (implied) costs/burdens will be central. Such a debate cannot be genuinely meaningful in the absence of an acceptable operationalisation of Article 3.1 in general, and of the concept of ‘respective capability’ in particular.

The Brief proposes a measure for national 'differentiated economic capabilities ('ability to pay') as integral part of an operationalisation. The primary purpose of the measure is to define or assess climate change cost/burden sharing (schemes). To illustrate the potential use of this methodology the Brief considers two examples: assessing the fairness of a given cost distribution; and developing a (rule-based) 'graduation scheme' regarding obligations to pay.

This is a second revised edition of the original ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller & Lavan Mahadeva that served as summary for policy makers of a technical report by the same authors published by the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, available at the link below. The revision is mainly with regards to the final section on determining ‘Levels of Capability’.

Author:
Benito Müller and Lavan Mahadeva
Publication Date:
January 2014

A new source of finance for climate action at the local level?

The policy brief considers ways in which crowdfunding for climate change (CF4CC) could be used to get funds to the 1.5 billion urban and rural poor currently without access to modern energy, to enable them to invest in renewable energy systems such as solar home systems, energy efficient products, or mini-grids serving communities and small towns.

A proposal based on this Policy Brief won the Popular Choice Award in the 2012-2013 MIT Climate Co-Lab “Scaling renewables in major emerging economies” contest.

Author:
Konrad von Ritter and Diann Black-Layne
Publication Date:
May 2013

A review of 2012 Fast-start Finance to assess whether wealthy nations transparently contributed a fair-share of the US$ 30 billion pledge.

A review of 2012 Fast-start Finance to assess whether wealthy nations transparently contributed a fair-share of the US$ 30 billion pledge, while balancing adaptation and mitigation funding, sourcing funds through UNFCCC channels, and without reverting to debt- inducing loans in the place of grants.

Have Climate Finance Promises Been Fulfilled for the LDCs?

Author:
David Ciplet, Timmons Roberts, Mizan Khan, Spencer Fields and Keith Madden
Publication Date:
April 2013

This paper draws on lessons from the concluded Bali Road Map negotiations to reflect on possible approaches to commitments in the 2015 agreement and its legal form.

This paper draws on lessons from the concluded Bali Road Map negotiations to reflect on possible approaches to commitments in the 2015 agreement and its legal form, the shift from a ëtop-downí to a ëpledge and reviewí approach to commitments, and the seemingly paradoxical relationship between the nature of commitments and the effectiveness of the regime.

Lessons from the Bali Road Map

Author:
Xolisa Ngwadla, Achala C.Abeysinghe and Adéyêmi Freitas
Publication Date:
March 2013

This brief proposes 'The Oxford Approach' framework for measuring national 'differentiated economic capabilities' ("ability to pay") as integral part of an operationalisation.

This brief proposes 'The Oxford Approach' framework for measuring national 'differentiated economic capabilities' ("ability to pay") as integral part of an operationalisation. Based on a well-known income tax paradigm to define or assess climate change cost/burden sharing (schemes).

Author:
Benito Müller, Lavan Mahadeva
Publication Date:
February 2013

So which contributor countries met their obligations from Copenhagen 2009, and which are lagging?

At the 2009 Copenhagen climate change negotiations the worldís wealthier nations pledged major funding to help developing countries shift to a lower-carbon economy, and to deal with current and future climate change impacts. They pledged US$30 billion of ënew and additionalí fast-start climate finance, with funding ëbalancedí between mitigation and adaptation. We are now at the end of the fast-start period (2010-2012). So which contributor countries met their obligations and which are lagging?

Author:
David Ciplet, Spencer Fields, Keith Madden, Mizan Khan and Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
November 2012

The importance of involving stakeholders in the GCF

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August 2012

This brief puts forward detailed recommendations concerning the functions and the form of the Standing Committee defined at Cancun.

At Cancun, the COP decided to establish a Standing Committee to assist it in exercising its functions with respect to the Financial Mechanism of the Convention. But it left open how exactly this should be done. The ecbi Policy Brief by Farrukh Khan and Benito M¸ller begins by looking at the COP functions which the Standing Committee is meant to assist considering, in particular, how such assistance could enhance the implementation of the Financial Mechanism. Based on this analysis, the brief puts forward detailed recommendations concerning the functions and the form of the Standing Committee.

Operationalizing the Standing Committee

Author:
Farrukh Iqbal Khan and Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August 2011

Dissecting the Green Climate Fund

speaking notes

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July 2011

ecbi Finance Circle meeting with Transitional Committee members

speaking notes

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2011

What would be a successful outcome of COP 16 in Cancun as concerns climate finance?

What would be a successful outcome of COP 16 in Cancun as concerns climate finance? The aim of this paper is to assess how the momentum achieved in Tianjin can be harnessed to deliver the sort of outcomes required for a comprehensive deal.

How to reach a deal at Cancun?

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
November 2010

This brief investigates the current levels of full-time equivalent staff in some major international development agencies re. climate finance.

This brief investigates the current levels of full-time equivalent staff in 11 major international development agencies to provides a rough and conservative estimate of the number of staff that will likely be needed to administer and carryout development work with the new and additional climate finance.

Author:
David Ciplet, Benito Müller, J. Timmons Roberts
Publication Date:
October 2010

This paper provides useful background in the forthcoming discussions and negotiations of the UNFCCC with respect to devolution of funding decisions.

The future of the global climate change negotiations hinges on an eventual UNFCCC globally embraced decision on climate change funding support for developing countries. Leading up to Copenhagen, some positive signs on funding emerged. However, these are in danger of turning into empty promises if issues of governance on finance are not resolved. This paper provides useful background in the forthcoming discussions and negotiations of the UNFCCC. Part of a wider series of ecbi and OIES publications on the Reformed Finance Mechanism, most specifically on the case for devolution of funding decisions to the national level.

Their role in the transition to a new paradigm of global cooperation on climate change

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
October 2010

The Tenth Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action

Author:
Momodou Njie
Publication Date:
June 2010

A policy brief proposing a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period.

A policy brief proposing a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period.

Post Copenhagen Architecture and Governance

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
April 2010

The 'institutionalized' group of Friends of the Chair is composed of delegates trying to influence the Chairman and each other about the way forward, reflecting national positions, and trying to hammer out compromises.

In the preparations for the Copenhagen COP-15 and in the aftermath of the confusing negotiations in Bella Centre there have been many references to the concept of Friends of the Chair. The 'institutionalized' group of Friends of the Chair is composed of delegates trying to influence the Chairman and each other about the way forward, reflecting national positions, and trying to hammer out compromises. This is a long-haul effort which is different from the idea of appointing Friends of the Chair as part of the end game of a negotiation: in this latter case it is ideally a method for the Chairman to get the most important actors to agree and clinch a deal that will lead to final agreement in the plenary.

The Art of Negotiation in the Rio process and climate negotiations

Author:
Bo Kjellén
Publication Date:
April 2010

The report by Benito Müller looks at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen and evaluates what happened and suggests what lessons ought to be learned.

It has been said that summits are either 'successful' or 'very successful'. The time has come to face the facts: this is wrong! That is not to say that Copenhagen was a failure, but merely that it could have done better, but still probably passed the test. The final verdict will depend on what happens next. The report by Benito M¸ller looks at the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen and evaluates what happened and suggests what lessons ought to be learned.

Failure or final wake-up call for our leaders?

Author:
Benito Müller
Publication Date:
February 2010

Bangkok Reports of the ecbi/IIED Supported Negotiators from Vulnerable Developing Countries

Bangkok Reports of the ecbi/IIED Supported Negotiators from Vulnerable Developing Countries

Author:
ecbi/IIED
Publication Date:
October 2009

Bonn III Reports of the ecbi/IIED Supported Negotiators from Vulnerable Developing Countries.

Bonn III Reports of the ecbi/IIED Supported Negotiators from Vulnerable Developing Countries

Author:
IIED
Publication Date:
October 2009

A new ecbi Policy Brief concerning Key Issues on Governance of Climate Change Finance, 2009.

Based on the proceedings of the ecbi meeting on 9 August 2009 at La Redoute in Bonn, a new ecbi Policy Brief concerning Key Issues on Governance of Climate Change Finance has been published, together with written answers by the UK participants to the questions put by Anders Wijkman, the moderator of the meeting.

Author:
Luis Gomez-Echeverri, Benito Müller
Publication Date:
August 2009

Taxe sur le transport aerien de passagers en faveur de l'adaptation (IAPAL)

PROPOSITION DU GROUPE DES PAYS LES MOINS AVANCES (PMA) dans le cadre du Plan díACTION DE BALI Soumise ‡ la CCNUCC AWG-LCA le 12 dÈcembre 2008avec Treize Questions/rÈponses - Taxe sur le transport aerien de passagers en faveur de l'adaptation (IAPAL)

Author:
Compilees par Benito Müller
Publication Date:
July 2009

The Reformed Financial Mechanism II; Section III. Compliance Oversight

The Reformed Financial Mechanism II; Section III. Compliance Oversight

Part II The Question of Oversight, Post Copenhagen Synthesis Report

Author:
Benito Müller, with contributions by Anju Sharma, Luis Gomez-Echeverri, Dane P. Rook and Achala Chandani
Publication Date:
June 2009

Two policy briefs detailing, on the one hand the history of the current financial mechanism, and suggesting, on the other a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period by Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri are available for downloading.

Two policy briefs detailing, on the one hand the history of the current financial mechanism, and suggesting, on the other a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period by Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri are available for downloading.

Author:
Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
April 2009

Two policy briefs detailing, on the one hand the history of the current financial mechanism, and suggesting, on the other a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period by Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri are available for downloading.

Author:
Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri
Publication Date:
April 2009

International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy (IAPAL): A proposal by the Group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) within the framework of the Bali Action Plan, submitted to the UNFCCC AWC-LCA on 12 December 2008; with Thirteen Questions and Answers compiled by Benito M¸ller

International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy (IAPAL): A proposal by the Group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) within the framework of the Bali Action Plan, submitted to the UNFCCC AWC-LCA on 12 December 2008; with Thirteen Questions and Answers compiled by Benito M¸ller

A proposal by the Group of LDCs within the framework of the Bali Action Plan

Author:
ecbi
Publication Date:
April 2009

This is not a fight against nature. It is a battle against short-sighted egoism, a fight against unreasonableness and blindness. And, above all, it is a fight for solidarity.

Author:
Moritz Leuenberger
Publication Date:
December 2006

A new proposal for Operationalising the Kyoto Protocolís
adaptation fund.

Operationalising the Kyoto Protocolís
adaptation fund: A new proposal

A new proposal

Author:
Amjad Abdullah, Bubu Pateh Jallow, Mohammad Reazuddin
Publication Date:
October 2006